McAllen Grace Brethren Church v. Salazar presents a fascinating conflict between Native American religious practice and the preservation of endangered eagle species. No. 13-40326 (Aug. 20, 2014) Robert Soto, a member of the Lipan Apache Tribe, sought to use eagle feathers in a tribal religious ritual. All parties agreed that his beliefs were sincere and that the lack of the feathers would substantially burden his ministry. The Lipan Apaches, while recognized by Texas authorities since the 1838 Live Oak Treaty between the Tribe and the Republic of Texas, are not a “federally recognized tribe” as understood by the Interior Department. Accordingly, under the Department’s regulations that implement various statutes about the protection of eagles, he was not entitled to the feathers.
Assuming that the Department’s stated goals — eagle protection and protection of federally-recognized tribes — served compelling interests, the Fifth Circuit held that the record did not show that the regulations used the least-restrictive means to advance those interests. The Court found the Department’s evidence of harm to be inconclusive and subject to more than one interpretation, and also found inadequate consideration of potential alternative approaches. Acknowledging that other courts have accepted similar arguments by the Department, the Court observed: “Soto does not seek to make the practice of his religion ‘easier,’ he seeks to avoid roadblocks of the government’s own making which have made the practice of his religion not just ‘not easier’” but impossible.” Accordingly, it reversed a summary judgment for the Department and remanded.