The contentious, high-profile False Claims Act case of U.S. ex rel Harman v. Trinity Industries ended with complete victory for the defense, based substantially on the U.S. Supreme Court’s recent opinion about the element of “materiality” in Universal Health Services v. U.S. ex rel. Escobar, 136 S.Ct.1989 (2016). While the Harman opinion touches on many other aspects of the trial evidence and the requirements of the FCA, its central teaching its is application of Escobar, as applied to the government’s interaction with and payment for the highway guardrails at issue: “[I]f the Government pays a particular claim in full despite its actual knowledge that certain requirements were violated, that is very strong evidence that those requirements are not material. Or, if the Government regularly pays a particular type of claim in full despite actual knowledge that certain requirements were violated, and has signaled no change in position, that is strong evidence that the requirements are not material.” No. 15-41172 (Sept. 29, 2017).
The Fifth Circuit affirmed a summary judgment for the defendants in the FCA case of Abbott v. BP Exploration & Production; after describing the alleged fact issues about “whether engineers approved the various stages of construction of the Atlantis [offshore oil platform],” it noted: “Rarely does the pursuit of an individual’s FCA claims lead to an investigation requested by Congress. But that is the case with these Plaintiffs, whose insistence on the alleged issues with the Atlantis led to Congressional hearings, an investigation by a federal agency, and the [De[artment of the Interior] Report,” which “found no grounds to suspend the operation of the Atlantis or revoke BP’s designation as an operator.” No. 16-20028 (March 14, 2017).
The issue in United States ex rel. Vavra v. Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. was whether KBR was liable for kickbacks taken by two employees. The Fifth Circuit held that the answer is fact-specific: “[T]he proper test for imputing knowledge under [the AKA] is that corporations are liable ‘only for the knowing violations of those employees whose authority, responsibility, or managerial role within the corporation is such that their knowledge is imputable to the corporation.'” As for the effect of the alleged kickback, even though “[i]t is true that the district court did not make any findings as to particular service problems [the employee] intended to influence in an improper manner through his gratuities . . . it is enough to connect the gratuity with the specific kind of treatment sought in a way that establishes impropriety,” which was done here “[b]ecause of the nature of the treatment [the employee] sought.” No. 15-41623 (Feb. 3, 2017).
The relator in a reverse False Claims Act case alleged that DuPont concealed its obligation to pay penalties under the Toxic Substances Control Act. After a careful review of the statute, its history, and policy considerations, the Fifth Circuit reversed the denial of summary judgment to DuPont: “Simoneaux’s position yields an extraordinarily broad construction of the FCA. If his reading . . . were correct, reverse-FCA liability could attach from the violation of any federal statute or regulation that imposes penalties. . . . For example, 45 C.F.R. § 3.42(e) prohibits roller-skating at the National Institutes of Health, and a person violating that regulation “shall be fined under title 18, United States Code, imprisoned for not more than 30 days, or both.” 40 U.S.C. § 1315(c)(A). Under Simoneaux’s reasoning, roller-skating at the NIH results in a penalty ‘of not less than $5,000’ and three times the fine assessed under Title 18. And any private person who saw the roller-skater could bring a qui tam action against him. The statutory definition of ‘obligation’ cannot bear the weight of that interpretation.” United States ex rel. Simoneaux v. duPont, No. 16-30141 (revised Dec. 14, 2016).
On December 7, Judges Graves, Higginbotham, and Jolly heard oral argument in the high-profile False Claims Act case of Harman v. Trinity Industries. A recording of the full argument is available online, and the Texas Lawbook published a thorough summary shortly after the argument.
The defendant pharmacy in an FCA case provided “PPDs” — prompt payment discounts; the plaintiff alleged that they were intended to induce Medicare and Medicaid referrals. The Fifth Circuit disagreed, holding: “At best, the evidence supports a finding that Omnicare did not want unresolved settlement negotiations to
negatively impact its contract negotiations with [skilled nursing facility] clients and was, likewise, avoiding confrontational collection practices . . . . Although Omnicare may have hoped for Medicare and Medicaid referrals, absent any evidence that Omnicare designed its settlement negotiations and debt collection practice to induce such referrals, Relator cannot show an [anti-kickback statute] violation.” Ruscher v. Omnicare, Inc., No. 15-20629 (Oct. 28, 2016).
In a dispute about insurance coverage for a False Claims Act case involving the repair of Coast Guard cutters, the relevant exclusion reached: “[t]he failure of your products to meet any
predetermined level of fitness or performance and/or guarantee of such fitness or level of performance and/or any consequential loss arising therefrom.” The insured argued that “predetermination” implied a bilateral agreement, while a “requirement” was unilateral and did not implicate the exclusion. The Fifth Circuit disagreed for several reasons: “But ‘predetermined’ means only ‘established, decided upon, or
decreed beforehand.’ It implies nothing about how a determination comes about, or who has the authority to determine. A single party can ‘determine’ something, and can do so in advance: there is nothing inherently bilateral about predetermination. And even if there were, the complaint lays out straightforwardly that [the insured] failed to meet a requirement that the parties together determined in advance. (citation omitted)” XL Specialty Ins. Co. v. Bollinger Shipyards, Inc., No. 14-31283 (Aug. 27, 2015).
- it is not sufficient to argue that certain federal regulations must have been contained in the relevant contract, because by their terms, they do not automatically apply;
- neither nondisclosure of a part’s history, nor the subsequent failure of a plane containing that part, establishes that a false claim was made about it; and
- speculation about a company’s billing practices does not adequately establish when the company actually submitted the allegedly false claims.
United States ex rel Gage v. Davis S.R. Aviation, LLC, No. 14-50704 (July 14, 2015).
The plaintiffs/relators in United States ex rel Rigsby v. State Farm contended that, in the wake of Hurricane Katrina, State Farm improperly skewed its claims handling process in favor of finding flood damage, as “wind policy claims were paid out of the company’s own pocket while flood policy claims were paid with government funds.” They won at trial and the Fifth Circuit affirmed, finding that – notwithstanding earlier investigations – they were “paradigmatic . . . whistleblowing insiders” as to this specific claim who qualified as “original sources.” The Court went on to find sufficient evidence of falsity and scienter, and reversed a discovery ruling that would not have allowed the plaintiffs to investigate the facts of other potentially false claims. ” 794 F.3d 457 (5th Cir. 2015). The Supreme Court granted review and affirmed on an issue about violation of the FCA’s sealing requirement.
The United States sued Bollinger Shipyards, alleging that it submitted false claims in connection with upgrades on the Coast Guard’s 110-foot patrol ships (right). The gist of the complaint was that “Bollinger eventually submitted the highest of three [strength] calculations (5,232) to the Coast Guard, while employing in its internal documents the middle calculation (3,037).” As to these strength measurements and their review by an independent agency, an internal email said, “adverse results could cause the entire conversion to be an uneconomical solution” and expressed concern that “we BLOW the program.” United States v. Bollinger Shipyards, Inc., No. 13-31301 (Dec. 23, 2014).
While the parties disputed the proper interpretation of this evidence, and the district court agreed with the defendants, the Fifth Circuit reversed: “Rule 12(b)(6) does not require the United States to present its best case or even a particularly good case, only to state a plausible case” that Bollinger acted “in reckless disregard of the truthy or falsity” of the measurements. The Court also held: “The government knowledge defense is not appropriate at the motion to dismiss stage, which requires us to draw all inferences in favor of the United States. It is more proper at the summary judgment or trial stage as ‘a means by which the defendant can rebut the government’s assertion of the “knowing” presentation of a false claim.'”
Relators, displeased with their treatment by the City of Dallas in connection with the redevelopment of a downtown office building, “embarked on a fifteen-month investigation that involved compiling data and performing analyses of DHA properties, Low-Income Housing Tax Credit project locations, and City plans and reports.” United States ex rel Lockey v. City of Dallas, Nos. 13-10884 & 14-10063 (Aug. After proceedings before HUD, they filed a qui tam lawsuit, alleging that the City and the Dallas Housing Authority submitted false claims that were not in compliance with their obligations under civil rights and fair housing laws. The Fifth Circuit affirmed dismissal, noting that “[t]he overwhelming majority of the complaint is . . . based, not on the Relators’ personal experiences with the City, but on their research of publicly disclosed information.” (applying United States ex rel. Reagan v. East Texas Medical Center, 385 F.3d 168, 177-78 (5th Cir. 2004)).
Characterizing the False Claims Act as “a statute that shadows every aspect of the administrative state,” the Fifth Circuit decided in United States ex rel. Shupe v. Cisco Systems, Inc. this issue: “[W]hen the Government ‘provides any portion of’ requested money” so as to trigger its protections. No. 13-40807 (July 7, 2014). After an extensive review of the statute and precedent, the Court concluded: “[That the FCC maintains regulatory supervision over the E-Rate program does not affect the Congress’ decision, embodied in the program’s independent structure, to externalize the cost of administering the program to a private entity. Because there are not federal funds involved in the program, and USAC [an independent nonprofit charged with its administration] is not itself a government entity, we agree that the Government does not ‘provide any portion of’ the requested money under the FCA.”
In United States ex rel Spicer v. Navistar Defense, LLC, the Fifth Circuit found that bankruptcy debtors failed to make adequate disclosure of a potential False Claims Act claim as an estate asset. No. 12-10858 (May 5, 2014). Accordingly, the trustee was the real party in interest and was able to take over the administration of the claim, even though he did not learn of it until after the bankruptcy closed and long after suit was filed on the claim. The review of the debtors’ disclosure is of broad general interest. As to the merits, the Court affirmed dismissal, reminding that “a false certification of compliance, without more, does not give rise to a false claim for payment unless payment is conditioned on compliance.”
Babalola and Adetunmbi alerted authorities to Medicare fraud by the clinic they worked for. Federal authorities investigated and the clinics’ operators, the Sharmas, were indicted and pleaded guilty, accepting a criminal restitution obligation of over $40 million. United States ex rel Babalola v. Sharma, No. 13-20182 (Feb. 14, 2014). During the criminal proceedings, the whistleblowers filed a FCA suit against the Sharmas. The Sharmas asserted an interest in the restitution proceeds, arguing that it was an “alternate remedy” within the meaning of the FCA that would give them “the same rights in such proceeding as [they] would have had if the action had continued under this section.” The Fifth Circuit disagreed, finding that other Circuits’ authorities “implicitly recogniz[e] that a qui tam suit must be filed before there is an alternate remedy.” A dissent conceded that this reading of the FCA was correct, but called for Congressional intervention in situations like this where the plaintiffs “took the path of the Good Samaritan and without delay provided the government with the evidence needed to pursue the defrauders.”
Two unpublished cases offer nuts-and-bolts insight on pleading requirements. A pro se copyright infringement complaint failed when the plaintiff “[d]id not plausibly allege that the defendants copied any original work of authorship by her.” Richards v. BP Exploration & Production, No. 12-30508 (April 3, 2013, unpublished). A qui tam suit under the False Claims Act failed to allege fraud with sufficient particularity. The Court noted that while Fed. R. Civ. P. 9(b) applies to FCA claims, its application there is “context specific and flexible,” and a plaintiff can plead with enough particularity “without including all the details of any single court-articulated standard–it depends on the elements of the claim in hand.” Nunnally v. West Calcasieu Cameron Hospital, No. 12-30656 (April 3, 2013, unpublished) (quoting United States ex rel. Grubbs v. Kanneganti, 565 F.3d 180, 189-90 (5th Cir. 2009)).
The case of Little v. Shell Exploration presented an issue of first impression — whether a federal employee, even one whose job is to investigate fraud, may bring a qui tam action under the False Claims Act. 690 F.3d 282 (5th Cir. 2012). After review of the statutory text, the Court sided with a majority of other Circuits that have addressed the issue and concluded that one may. The Court acknowledged the practical issue of “how to ensure employee fidelity to agency enforcement priorities in the face of personal monetary incentives,” but concluded that the government could address that issue with personnel guidelines and with its power to intervene and dismiss actions. The Court remanded for consideration of whether the “public disclosure” and “original source” aspects of the Act barred the specific claims raised by these relators — matters that could limit the scope of the first holding.
In Gonzalez v. Fresnius Medical Care, the Court affirmed a JNOV on claims under the False Claims Act. Nos. 10-50413, 10-51171 (July 30, 2012). The Court agreed with the district court’s conclusion that the plaintiff had not shown a wrongful patient referral scheme, noting that the number of referred patients stayed the same over time, whether or not the alleged conspiracy was in place. Id. at 8. The Court also agreed that a line of cases about claims “tainted by fraud” was limited to the fraudulent inducement context. Id. at 9-11. Finally, the Court affirmed a sanctions award under 28 USC § 1927 based on the plaintiff’s changing testimony on whether she was asked to cover up the alleged scheme, noting differences between the deposition, the errata sheet afterwards, and then trial testimony. Id. at 13-16.